Friday, May 22, 2020
Patient TeachingÃ¢â¬âIncentive Spirometer Sergei Pugachov Georgia Southern University School of Nursing Dr. Linda Upchurch NURS 3163 An incentive spirometer is a device that our patients use to improve the function of their lungs. This main underlying principle is that breathing can be exercised to train the expansion of lungs capacity (Potter, Perry, Stockert, amp; Hall, 2013). Patients who qualify for this intervention include those who have recently had a surgery, were under anesthesia, or have been placed on bed rest. Our main concern here is that these situations create opportunity for less activity within the lungs, which can put the patient at risk for pneumonia. The goal of incentive spirometer is to keep the lungsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shallow breathing and pain altered this patientÃ¢â¬â¢s comfort. Therefore, one of the nursing diagnoses can be stated as Ã¢â¬Å"Breathing Pattern, Ineffective r/t pain and anxiety, as evidenced by respiratory depth changes (Ackley amp; Ladwig p. 175). We briefly discussed the specifics of incentive spirometry use before initiating the intervention. After return de monstration, the patient was ready to use his incentive spirometer. Outcome Patient outcome consisted of performing 10 deep breaths per hour. We have reviewed details that were difficult for the patient to remember, such as breathing out before placing the lips on the mouthpiece, and holding breath for 3 to 5 seconds at the top of each inhalation. With empathy, I provided understanding that being hospitalized is never easy due to sensory overload, pain and lack of privacy. Additionally, we have discussed the basic pathophysiology of lung inflammation and what it can do to a person. So overall, the outcome included enhanced disease knowledge with effective use of incentive spirometer. Therapeutic Nursing Interventions Educational intervention was necessary when the patient was observed making three common mistakes. First, I reminded the client that it is preferred to breathe out before putting the mouthpiece in the mouth. Second, the mouth has to form a tight seal around the mouth piece for maximum efficiency. Finally, I explained the goal ofShow MoreRelatedAs Nurses, One Of Our Responsibilities Is To Educate And1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAs nurses, one of our responsibilities is to educate and assess our patientÃ¢â¬â¢s learning needs. It is important for us to evaluate their health behaviors and identify areas where there may be a necessity for additional teaching. For example, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is common among the elderly population. COPD affects nearly thirteen million adults in the U.S. Although the disease is preventable and treatable, it is the third leading cause of death, 120,000 deaths every year areRead MoreA Reflection On Th e Nurse1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmuch more than the physiological care that most people think of as being the sole duties of a nurse. A good nurse provides patient care that is holistic, which encompasses the physiological, spiritual, mental and cultural aspects of each individual patient (Sharon, 2014). It is a process of healing that involves the mind, body and spirit. To meet all the needs of a patient, the nurse utilizes holistic care to assist in managing the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s illness, symptoms, health, healing and function whichRead MoreCase Study Assessment For Copd881 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEncourage deep breathing exercise, effective coughing, the use of incentive spirometer Administer oxygen as prescribed; no more than 2 liters of oxygen Administer medication as prescribed(Bronchodilator and steroids) Chest Physical therapy Smoking cessation Dietary Prescriptions It is important that patients with COPD to increase their calories intake and decrease sodium intake as well drinking plenty of fluids throughout the day. Patients with COPD should consume more calories to help produce energyRead MoreImproving Patient s Quality And Longevity Of Life1183 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages90 days. For patients with conditions like CHF, the rate of readmission within 30 days reaches 25%. The estimated cost for unplanned rehospitalizations in 2004 was $17.4 billion. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services penalizes hospitals for high rates of readmission within 30 days of discharge for patients with CHF, MI, and pneumonia. Although there is no significant evidence that failed patient education is the exact cause for the readmissions, providing education to patients might haveRead MoreEffectiveness Of Discharge Planning For Patients Essay1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommunication, August 25, 2016). Evidence-based practice enhances care and the delivery process as well as improving patient outcomes, thus the reason it is recommended when providing discharge planning for patients. Research shows numerous barriers restrict effective discharge teaching. Inadequate comprehension is the leading barrier preventing successful teaching thus increasing patient adverse effects, risks, and poor outcomes according to the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Effective Discharge Communication in the EmergencyRead MoreHospital Acquired Pneumonia Case Study1968 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmorbidity (Seymann, 2008). This paper is a case study of a 52 year old female who was in the hospital for a scheduled gastric bypass surgery. During a post-op test she aspirated dye thus beginning the process of her developing nosocomial pneumonia. The patient was discharged only to return to the emergency department the following day presenting with signs and symptoms of pneumonia. This paper will discuss her diagnosis, treatment, risk factors, nursing care, socioeconomic influences, and diagnostic testingRead MoreA Short Note On Emphysema, The Irreversible Enlargement Of The Acini1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore difficult because air is trapped in the lungs and it cannot be exhaled passively. As a result of the trapped air, the lungs become hyperinflated which in turn increases the workload of breathing. With further progression of the disease many patients develop hypoventilation and hypercapnia. Another consequence of the unrelenting inflammation of the airways is hyperreactivity of the bronchi with bronchoconstriction (Huether McCance, 2012). Emphysema is included under the broader medical diagnosesRead MoreDepartment Of Nursing Education Teaching Plan1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages DEPARTMENT OF NURSING EDUCATION TEACHING PLAN STUDENT NAME: Carla Sanchez PROFESSORÃ¢â¬â¢S NAME: John Tote PATIENTÃ¢â¬â¢S INITIALS: A.D. MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS: Severe Coronary Artery Disease ASSESSMENT LEARNING NEEDS Patient is a 74 y/o male who is post op Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (x 5) surgery. Mr. D and his wife are of Lebanese descent. I was present during the removal of this patientÃ¢â¬â¢s chest tube, and there was difficulty with him following directions as far as taking 3 deep breaths and holding the lastRead MoreProfessional Growth Through Collaborative Efforts And Leadership Skills992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesspecial events that I hold meaningful in my current profession. I work as a registered nurse on the surgical specialties unit and have been there for thirty years. Most of the patients that I care for are post-surgical patients. One particular event that I will be discussing throughout this paper is that of an extremely painful patient. By utilizing the transformational model I will be able to show how I have established professional growth through collaborative efforts and leadership skills. ClinicalRead MoreEnhanced Recovery After Surgery (Eras) Are A Relatively1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) are a relatively new set of protocols arising in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s which have since been coined the gold standard in surgical patient care. They have been increasing adopted in because overall research has shown them to be a safe and cost effective way of reducing length of hospital stay and positive patient outcomes. ERAS protocols are threaded throughout the perioperative care, including pre, intra and post-operative phases. I will analysis two research papers which
Thursday, May 7, 2020
In modern day society, popular culture has gained equal status to world issues and politics. Music, movies, and literature have started cultural revolutions and challenged the straight-forward thinking many individuals have accepted in the past. But while popular culture can advance new ideas and create movements, it also has the ability to challenge advancements society has made. Imani PerryÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, The Venus Hip Hop and the Pink Ghetto, focuses on hip hop and its negative impact on women and body image. In The Venus Hip Hop and the Pink Ghetto, Imani Perry argues that the over-sexualized, unattainable bodies of black women in popular culture will lead to the breakdown of feminism and the positive body image of the everyday blackÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Her clothes accentuate her cleavage or have a sexual shock factor, such as wearing Ã¢â¬Å"sequined pastiesÃ¢â¬ ¦[that] coordinate with the rest of her attireÃ¢â¬ . The vulgar, sexual nature of her raps makes it impos sible for her to not receive attention from the media. Another artist, Eve, dresses sexually to accentuate her body and appears in videos with music video models but raps about social issues like domestic violence. By comparing the nature of these artists and their music, Perry tries to show that young girls have very few role models in hip hop that promote positive feminists values and body images. But, she neglects to discuss other feminist artists she mentions in the essay such as DestinyÃ¢â¬â¢s Child and Mary J. Blige and how their lyrics and actions in the media allow young black girls to have positive role models that show a woman can be independent, strong, and beautiful in their own way. PerryÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on the more sexualized female artists in hip hop and how their shocking appearance and lyrics allow them to be as successful as their male counterparts took away from the development of her argument about conservative artists and their success. By leading the reader to believe that artists are either overly-sexual or conservative, Perry limits how the reader forms an opinion on why or why not young girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ body image may be threatened by the media and the hip hop
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Jessica Taylor 13, February 2012 AP English Mrs. Mercer Self-Sufficiency and Individualism Can Harm a Community Henry David Thoreau goes to the woods to live away from duties and to live a life of leisure. He moves far away from any method of communication, such as the post office. We will write a custom essay sample on Argumentative Thoreau Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now He wishes to live independently and self-sufficiently. The quote Ã¢â¬Å"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. Ã¢â¬ He summarizes his reasons for living in the woods in this quote. Thoreau wants to live deliberately; to choose his own course and have no one else influence his life. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get old and look back and realize that there are things in life that he wanted to do, that he has never done. If everyone in a community lived by the virtues of individualism and self-sufficiency, then there would be no community. In a community, everyone contributes something. Individuals in a community work together, in order to solve problems and issues facing the community. Such as, if there has been a terrible natural disaster, communities work together to repair the damage. If the damage is more extensive in some areas than others, then the individuals of that community can work harder to restore it. If everyone in a community lived by the virtues of individualism and self-sufficiency, then in times of crisis or suffering, there would be no sense of community where people helped one another. Also if a community lived by these virtues, then there would be no trust. In order to gain or build trust, there has to be some sort of connection between individuals. In ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s self-sufficient world, there was no communication. If a person held the virtue of self-sufficiency, this may make other individuals feel offended. People would feel offended because todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world is all about communication. If an individual blocked out other people and did not allow them to help him/her, then this might make the other individual feel as if they were not beneficial. Instead of being a community, it would be more of a rivalry between individuals. There would be no trust or companionship. In times when individuals would need each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s help; there would be no sense of alliance. Everyone would be against one another, because everyone would feel as if each other were untrustworthy. In the United States, we are one giant community; there are many communities within the major one. In times of war or battle, we stand together. Above all, the citizens in the U. S are able to come together to fight the battles when needed. If every citizen in the U. S lived by the virtues of self-sufficiency and individualism then there would be no U. S. in times of war; there would be no army. In an army you must work together to find the best solution to the problem, there has to be teamwork and trust. In a self-sufficient world, everyone would want to do things in their own way, and in return this would cause chaos. A community is a beneficial factor, without it we have nothing. Yes, being self-sufficient can be a helpful virtue, but in the condition of the community it is one virtue that can destroy the community. If there was no sense of an alliance, there would be no way to survive a natural disaster or fatal event. A community can strive and recover from a setback, whereas, if an individual was self-sufficient, then this would be much more difficult. How to cite Argumentative Thoreau Essay, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Anonymous Was a Woman For the overwhelming majority of human history, women have been viewed as subservient beings whose foremost functions were child rearing and homemaking. Until recently, it was widely accepted that a womans place was in the home; financial responsibility for the family fell exclusively on the mans shoulders. Recently, the distinct line distinguishing gender roles has become blurred and it is not uncommon for the woman to be the provider and her husband the homemaker. In the era immediately preceding the modern feminist movement, many individuals advocated omens rights and encouraged women to be fiscally and personally independent. One such advocate was the Victorian writer Virginia Woolf. During the era in which she lived, successful, proficient women were a rarity. However, Woolf avidly urged women to follow her example and surmount this societal obstacle in order to achieve professional accomplishment. In his 1961 play, Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Edward Albee creates Martha, who is essentially the antithesis of Woolfs independent, professional woman. We will write a custom essay sample on Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page While she is by no means the stereotypical meek and gentle ousewife of the early and mid twentieth century, Martha is clearly impeded by gender expectations. The feminism embodied by Woolf and typified in her speech, Professions for Women, provides insight into the underlying significance of the recurring song Whos afraid of Virginia Woolf as it relates to Martha in Albees play. In Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Albee delves into the stereotypical roles of men and women. Martha, the hostess wife, is depicted as a woman dependent on the aid of men. Before meeting her husband George, Martha lived under the support and guidance of her father. Even when she became an adult, her goal was not to find success, but rather to find a man whose success she could live through. The thought of personal sustainment was a fleeting one, if one at all. After knowing her guests, Nick and Honey, for a mere few hours, Martha drunkenly divulges to them intimate details of her life. When recounting her early adulthood, Martha says, So after I got done with college and stuff, I came back here and sort of sat around, for a while. I wasnt married, or anything I was a hostess for Daddy and I took care of him and it was nice. It was very nice. (Albee 85-86). Although she attended college, Martha never intended the fruit of her education to be applied professionally. While most college graduates might seek employment upon graduating, Martha had no such aim. Instead, she passively allowed herself to be pushed down the path that society had cleared for her. As with countless women before her, Marthas life was controlled by the men in it; until she married George, Martha was preoccupied with the care of her father. One man was seamlessly replaced by another and the hesitation in her speech suggests that she was less than satisfied with this. While Martha and many other women have succumbed to the pressures of society, a select few were able to overcome them and find success. Of these exceptional women, Virginia Woolf stands out as an intelligent, outspoken supporter of womens rights. The pit of reliance that Martha fell into was exactly what Woolf spoke out against. In her essay Three Guineas, Woolf states that, o depend on upon a profession is a less odious form absolutely necessary for women to break the shackles of financial dependence in order to be free. Through her various speeches, essays, and other writings, Virginia Woolf clarifies her opinions and proves to be an extremely intelligent and thoughtful woman. Woolfs mastery of language competes with some of the most revered male authors throughout history. Despite the male dominance in society, Virginia Woolf was able to elevate herself to an equal level. In addition to overcoming obstacles personally, Woolf actively advised other women to do the same. In her speech to a group of women in the National Society for Womens Service, Virginia Woolf elucidates the prejudices that stand in the way of women professionals (Woolf, Professions). Despite the advances made by her and other prominent females, Woolf insists that women must continue sincerely in the fght for professional liberty. As Woolf speaks earnestly in an attempt to promote female liberation and advancement, Martha counteracts the effort by taking a backseat position in her own life. After deciding she would like to secure her legacy at the university which her father runs, she concludes that the best and only way to accomplish this is by marrying into it. Instead of trying to become an active component herself, Martha relies on her relations with men, as she historically has, to solidify her fate. When she marries George, Martha expects that he will be able to rise to an authoritative position and will eventually replace her father as president; to her immense disappointment, George reveals himself as a flop and stands no chance of promotion (Albee). Throughout the play, Martha harps on George for his lack of professional accomplishment, but it is more than likely that some if not all of her disappointment in him stems from an even deeper dissatisfaction with herself. By continually matching wits with her husband, Martha proves to be a competent and cunning woman. Unlike Woolf, however, she refuses to channel her intellect roductively. Due to the impeding decisions that she repeatedly makes, Martha becomes the enslaved woman that Woolf so fervently rebukes. The third and final time the song Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf appears in the play, Martha responds by saying l am George am (Albee 257). In this closing scene, Marthas tough fapde crumbles revealing a poignant vulnerability. Obviously Martha is not literally afraid of Virginia Woolf; rather, she is intimidated by the values that Woolf embodies. While Martha may realize that she is capable of self-sustainment, she submits to the osition that society has put her in and relies on men to support her. Instead of using her intellect in the workplace as Woolf advises, Martha employs it maliciously and plays mind games with her houseguests. Without former knowledge of Virginia Woolf and her accomplishments, one might not fully or even remotely comprehend the implication of Marthas response. However, with the understanding of Woolf and her feminist values, it becomes clear why Marthas character might fear the strength and independence that Woolf promotes. As with countless women before her, Martha is weary of breaking the tradition of her male dominated society.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Treaty of Versailles Source study Essays - International Relations Treaty of Versailles Source study Source 1 80. Germany will respect the independence of Austria.81. Germany recognizes the complete independence of Czechoslovakia.87. Germany recognizes the complete independence of Poland.119. Germany surrenders all her rights and titles over her overseas countries.159. The German military forces shall be demobilized and reduced not to exceed 100,000 men.181. The German navy must not exceed 6 battleships, 6 light cruisers, 12 destroyers, and 12 torpedo boats. No submarines are to be included.198. The Armed Forces of Germany must not include any military or naval air forces. 231. Germany and her Allies accept the responsibility for causing all the loss and damage to the Allied Powers.*233. Germany will pay for all damages done to the civilian population and property of the Allied Governments. [The figure was later set at $33 billion].428. To guarantee the execution of the Treaty, the German territory situated to the west of the Rhine River will be occupied by Allied troops for fifteen years.431. The occupation forces will be withdrawn as soon as Germany complies with the Treaty. Extracts from the Treaty of Versailles, signed 1919 Source: https://www.facinghistory.org/weimar-republic-fragility-democracy/politics/treaty-versailles-summaries-specific-articles-politics-treaty Source 2 Source: http://urbachc.org/urb-versailles-political-cartoons.html Use Source 1 and 2, explain what impact the Treaty of Versailles had on Germany politically and economically.5 Marks Using the sources and your own knowledge, examine the motivations of those who created the Treaty of Versailles. 10 Marks Using the sources and your own knowledge, analyse the contribution of the Treaty of Versailles to Hitler's rise to power.10 Marks
Monday, March 2, 2020
Chemtrails Versus Contrails Do you know the difference between a chemtrail and a contrail? A contrail is an abbreviation for condensation trail, which is a visible white vapor trail produced as water vapor condenses from aircraft engine exhaust. Contrails consist of water vapor or tiny ice crystals. The length of time they persist varies from several seconds to a few hours, depending largely on the temperature and humidity. Chemtrails, on the other hand, are chemical trails purportedly resulting from an intentional high-altitude release of chemical or biological agents. While you might think chemtrails would include crop dusting, cloud seeding and chemical drops for firefighting, the term is only applied to illicit activities as part of a conspiracy theory. Proponents of the chemtrail theory believe chemtrails may be distinguished from contrails by color, displaying a criss-cross trail pattern and persistent appearance. The purpose of chemtrails might be weather control, solar radiation control, or testing of various agents on people, flora or fauna. Atmospheric experts and government agencies say there is no basis for the chemtrail conspiracy theory. Key Takeaways: Contrails vs Chemtrails Contrails are condensation trails left in the sky when the water in aircraft engine exhaust condenses to form artificial clouds.Contrails may last a matter or seconds or persist several hours. Contrails dissipate more slowly when a lot of water vapor is present in the atmosphere. Lower temperatures also aid contrail persistence.Chemtrails refer to a conspiracy theory. The theory stems from a belief in intentional high-altitude releases of chemicals or biological agents.Supposedly, chemtrails are indicated by contrails that persist, occur in a criss-cross pattern, or display colors besides white.Scientists and government agencies have found no evidence supporting the existence of chemtrails. It is true agents are released into the atmosphere from time to time for cloud seeding and experiments on controlling solar radiation. Are Contrails Harmful? Even if its assumed contrails serve no nefarious purpose, its worth asking whether they impact the environment and whether they are potentially harmful. To answer this question, its useful to understand how contrails form. An aircraft with a jet engine burns fuel and releases an exhaust plume into the atmosphere. The composition of the fuel is tightly regulated to minimize impurities, but may contain a small fraction of nitrogen or sulfur. Combustion releases carbon dioxide and water, two important greenhouse gases. Sulfur particles provide nuclei on which water vapor may condense into droplets. The collection of droplets appears as a contrail. Basically, a contrail is an artificial cloud. Criss-crossing contails occur in high traffic areas. Researchers know the clouds produced by aircraft have an impact on air temperature and may impact rainfall and weather patterns. Basically, contrails have the potential to affect global climate change. However, the nature and extent of the change is uncertain. Contrail cover is expected to change over time as aircraft technology, the number of aircraft, and humidity conditions evolve. Persistent contrail cloud cover is expected to increase, at least until 2050 (the end date of the forecast). Aircraft emissions are regulated because they have the potential to contribute to ozone formation and smog. Jet engines emit nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, carbon black, and hydrocarbons (as well aforementioned carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur). However, contrails are not believed to have any immediate effect on public health. Small aircraft do use leaded fuel and release lead into the atmosphere (but dont produce visible trails). Modern Chemtrails If the concept of chemtrails is expanded to include the intentional release of chemicals into the atmosphere (not for some evil purpose), then such projects do exist. Weather modification in the form of cloud seeding is used in parts of the world, including China and Southeast Asia. Some of the chemicals used in the process (typically silver iodide, potassium iodide, table salt, liquid propane, or dry ice) can affect human health and damage the environment. Solar radiation management is an area of ongoing study intended to reflect sunlight and reduce global warming. Some proposed methods include the release of sulfate aerosols and other chemicals into the air. While toxicity is not a primary concern, altering the weather patterns will definitely have environmental effects. Sources Cama, Timothy (March 13, 2015). EPA confronts chemtrails conspiracy talk. The Hill.Johnson, M. Kim (December 1999). Chemtrails Analysis. NMSR Reports, 5(12).Radford, Benjamin (2009). Curious Contrails: Death From the Sky? Skeptical Inquirer.Smith, Oliver (July 4, 2017). Incredible contrail made by Boeing 787 - what causes them, and are they part of a global conspiracy? The Telegraph.US Environmental Protection Agency (September 2000). Aircraft Contrails Factsheet.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Hacker Culture - Research Paper Example Hackers may also block the public from logging in to the site hence the revenue details would be inaccessible. This study will focus on hackerÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation, their personality, and action. Personality of a potential hacker Potential hackers are people suspected to have intent to circumventing through a computerÃ¢â¬â¢s security system for their own personal gain. They may include students, employees, activists, and criminals among others. Normally, the potential hackers have an intention to access the information from Wisconsin department of revenue for commercial purposes. From a psychological view, hackers may be bitter about the unemployment rates in the society or they may be people with an exploration mind. Hackers use vulnerability scanners, password cracking software, packet sniffer software and spoofing attach to enter a system. However, due to the development in technology, such hackers can be identified by recently developed software. Such software is able to identif y any unusual activity in the site hence blocking it (Gayle, 1971). Motivation of hackers Wish to make illegal money by stealing Hackers are people with an intention of making an extra income from conning and swindling online businesspersons. By use of their ability to access secured systems, they are able to access important information for example credit cards data, bank details, identity and various other types of information. With such information, they create rogue accounts which they can use to purchase, borrow advance salary, withdraw cash etc. In case hacker accesses information from Wisconsin department of revenue, the government would loss taxes. The hacker would be able to change the income tax values of companies hence making such companies pay small revenue to the government (Jerome, 1986). This would lead to loss of taxes by the government. These unscrupulous individuals always pay these hackers and companies who need to evade paying taxes. Therefore the money they ear n acts as motivation to hacking. Intention to use other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas The intellectual property rights guide intellectual property. The legal systems of different countries have been designed to provide protection against use of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. However, the hackers are able to access such ideas and present them as their own. The information may include innovations, new formulas, and important research. New ideas and plans of Wisconsin revenue department stay at risk if a hacker has access to their files. Through the intention to use the ideas of other people, hackers are motivated to struggle and circumvent a computerÃ¢â¬â¢s security system. Intention to reveal industrial secrets Every business keeps records and files away from the public. Their records remain a deep secret that is only supposed to be accessed by authorized persons only. Such secrets include the marketing policies, the purchasing policies, and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s plans. In addition, it may includ e illegal business activities used for the benefit of the company. The competitors are guarded from accessing these secrets as way of safeguarding the benefit and future prosperity of the company in the market. Hackers are therefore motivated to work hard and ensure that such vital data is available to the public or to specific competitors (Gu, 2010). Moreover, a